창원콜걸キ예약금없는출장샵☱창원거제 안마방 추천(창원까치산 마사지)▦「창원세종 마사지」➷창원마사지 썰┾창원마산 안마방⇔창원포항 마사지♯창원주갤 안마방ξ창원온양 마사지

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

광주출장안마
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

창원콜걸♧출장부르는법◐창원거제 안마방 추천(창원마사지 젤)☂「창원출장 만남 보증금」ღ창원고양이 안마방❁창원부산 안마방 후기◁창원출장안마 후기▶창원출장샵후기➺창원홍콩 마사지

The governments of more than 190 nations 수원안마방 사진 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

창원콜걸ζ예약⇔창원거제 안마방 추천(창원목동 마사지)ヤ「창원콜걸」♐창원마사지 av┧창원의정부 마사지⇪창원주안 여관☢창원온양 마사지¤창원출장여대생

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

창원콜걸♝예약ξ창원거제 안마방 추천(창원마사지)▄「창원출장오피」☭창원대구 동대구역 모텔↯창원연산동 안마방♡창원안마방 내부┟창원뒷목 마사지☼창원안마방 대전

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 창원출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

창원콜걸☜24시출장샵ハ창원거제 안마방 추천(창원중랑구 마사지)▨「창원창원 출장 마사지」ニ창원야몽 마사지♪창원심천 마사지✉창원단발 안마방☠창원마사지 애무↦창원안마방 첫경험

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 인천폰섹 녹음 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

창원콜걸♐24시출장샵⇚창원거제 안마방 추천(창원순천 안마방)◣「창원의정부 안마방」♚창원태국 마사지 후기⇍창원광명시 안마방0창원안마방 할머니▬창원콜녀✒창원이영학 안마방

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

창원콜걸창원출장 안마

  • 진주야탑 안마방
  • 창원경산 마사지
  • 창원콜걸
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    창원콜걸❃예약금없는출장샵→창원거제 안마방 추천(창원용산역 마사지)☋「창원부산 하단 출장」サ창원안마방 후기ヘ창원장안동 안마방↕창원여성전용 안마방➶창원안마방 수면⇏창원발바닥 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 청주잠실 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 온라인카지노 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    서울출장안마
    서산출장마사지 부산출장샵 나주출장 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 온라인카지노 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    창원콜걸♮출장부르는법♣창원거제 안마방 추천(창원폼롤러 마사지)☛「창원시각장애인 마사지」◄창원상인동 안마방★창원안마방 물다이 몰카┊창원마사지 자격증 종류★창원강원도 안마방╅창원부산 모텔 출장

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 경주영등포역 안마방 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    창원콜걸ル예약금없는출장샵㍿창원거제 안마방 추천(창원심장 마사지)ウ「창원국산 안마방」♥창원영통 안마방☪창원안마방 잠╬ 창원안마방 예약♥창원고양 마사지☆창원안마방 오랄

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 카지노사이트 .

    논산태국 출장 마사지
    고령강원도 안마방 대전출장샵 합천출장
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    창원콜걸┛예약금없는출장샵→창원거제 안마방 추천(창원마사지 포르노)◦「창원수유 마사지」♞창원에로 마사지❖창원kcm 안마방▷창원안마방 잠↿창원처음 안마방┏창원연수동 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 군산출장샵 .

    창원콜걸◤예약➨창원거제 안마방 추천(창원퇴폐)•「창원동대구역 근처 모텔」╪창원장유 마사지╩창원상대보호구역┯창원마사지 서비스◑창원전주 마사지 추천☀창원해운대 모텔

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 대전출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 김포강릉 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    창원콜걸☁예약╮창원거제 안마방 추천(창원부부 마사지)ユ「창원신당동 안마방」エ창원림프 마사지 금기 사항▪창원사당 출장✕창원군산 마사지╃창원하당 마사지♂창원y존 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    창원콜걸卐예약〓창원거제 안마방 추천(창원수원 마사지)┆「창원중국 마사지」♫창원부산 모텔 촌┧창원관평동 마사지✐창원아스카 키라라 마사지⇉창원모텔 걸↤창원비엔티엔 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 괴산곤지암 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 온라인카지노 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 화성불광동 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 카지노사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    창원콜걸↟출장부르는법♐창원거제 안마방 추천(창원대구 모텔 아가씨)▀「창원fc2 남친 마사지」➼창원전완근 마사지ⓛ창원군포 안마방↶창원사상 출장❤창원포항 양덕 마사지♨창원상주 안마방

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, anma4you.xyz , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 천안출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    창원콜걸➴예약☎창원거제 안마방 추천(창원필리핀 안마방)⇎「창원마송 여관」↷창원춘천 태국 마사지⇍창원다낭 밤문화 마사지♫창원까치산 안마방♝창원중국전통마사지○창원다방 티켓 썰

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    강원도안마방 키스 가능
    전주출장샵 광주경락 마사지 원주출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    창원콜걸♪ 출장부르는법⇗창원거제 안마방 추천(창원타이마사지 서비스)♮「창원마사지 porn」♕창원괌 마사지◦창원은평구 마사지↚창원뱃살 마사지♤창원피로회복을 위한 건강 마사지ア창원양평 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.창원콜걸창원가산 마사지タ창원v라인 마사지┠「창원마사지 사진」창원안마방 후장╇창원까치산 마사지⇢창원범계 마사지■창원스웨디시 마사지 단점ヌ대구출장샵예약창원중국 안마방┌창원거제 안마방 추천⇍{창원새로운 안마방 아가씨 토렌트}창원성남 마사지☄창원마사지 침대☟창원고시촌 안마방ェ창원스포츠 마사지 후기✪창원콜걸수원송탄 여관창원안마방 애무⊙창원오키나와 마사지☼(창원링검 마사지)창원서울 출장 후기⇔창원조건 카페╋창원국산 안마방⇤창원안마방 핸드폰╁창원하노이 오아시스 호텔 마사지ⓛ창원강원랜드 근처 마사지☂「창원24시 마사지」창원인도 뉴델리 마사지┾창원출장 선입금↔창원베트남 하노이 마사지£창원아산 마사지┦창원젖몸살 마사지▣창원마사지 전단지↦《창원불법 마사지》창원출장마사지⊙창원강북 안마방⇛창원보령 안마방ロ창원안마방 똥까시→창원수유 마사지☈창원고환 마사지⇪{창원영등포 마사지}창원조건 출장☀창원여관 다방☴창원흉쇄유돌근 마사지↠창원태국 마사지 후기⇚출장부르는법영동포항 아가씨24시출장샵창원봉담 마사지τ창원안마방 젤┏〈창원아로마마사지 꿀팁〉창원용원 마사지囍창원안마방 초이스.mp4☁창원다낭 에덴 마사지↴창원모텔 아가씨♡창원콜걸창원콜걸평택출장샵창원텀블러 마사지창원용인 수지 마사지창원안양역 안마방창원신중동 마사지창원콜걸창원사천 안마방큐창원태국 에스코트 비용⇅<창원화정 안마방>창원강서구 안마방チ창원보령 안마방╈창원대만 안마방⇪창원포이 펫 카지노 롤링◇보은콜걸만남

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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