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  • 횡성출장샵✪24시출장샵┺횡성봉천 안마방〖횡성상해 마사지〗◎「횡성광주 안마방 후기」➧횡성안마방 단속 일베◘횡성수원 안마방☀횡성가산동 안마방▤횡성몰카 안마방☼횡성op

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

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    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    횡성출장샵↔24시출장샵ソ횡성봉천 안마방〖횡성아줌마 마사지〗◁「횡성남포동 안마방」◦횡성경성대 마사지⇡횡성대전 유성 안마방↼횡성울산 삼산 안마방↕횡성간석동 안마방◑횡성안마방 순서

    The governments of more than 190 nations 청주베트남 마사지 가격 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    횡성출장샵✃예약금없는출장샵✖횡성봉천 안마방〖횡성싸인볼 마사지〗τ「횡성성서 안마방」├횡성김원중 안마방⇎횡성안마방 여자친구◄횡성잠실 안마방♬횡성안마방 정보◀횡성두통 마사지

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    횡성출장샵-출장부르는법░횡성봉천 안마방〖횡성안마방 긴밤〗»「횡성y존 마사지」✖횡성불광 여관➻횡성김천 마사지.횡성제주시청 마사지☈횡성ace anma┣횡성사상 안마방

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 군산출장안마 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    횡성출장샵♐출장부르는법◘횡성봉천 안마방〖횡성호치민 마사지 추천〗λ「횡성응암 마사지」↖횡성fc2 안마방✪횡성사당역 안마방♙횡성울산 삼산 안마방⊕횡성안마방 사까시 횡성방콕 마사지 비용

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 의왕창원 안마방 후기 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    횡성출장샵↙예약♛횡성봉천 안마방〖횡성대전 안마방〗◕「횡성변비 마사지」囍횡성광명 안마방┱횡성종아리 마사지 기계▨횡성눈붓기빼는 마사지▨횡성평촌 마사지⇞횡성천안 대딸방

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    횡성출장샵횡성베트남 다낭 마사지

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    횡성출장샵♡예약£횡성봉천 안마방〖횡성평택 마사지〗☇「횡성일본 마사지 야동」╊횡성안마방 처음⇣횡성마사지 레전드▩횡성서정리 안마방─횡성일본 오일 마사지┪횡성철구 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 양양해피 출장 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 온라인카지노 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    서울출장안마
    보령서혜부 마사지 부산출장안마 평창타이 마사지 꿀팁
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 대전출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    횡성출장샵♥24시출장샵卐횡성봉천 안마방〖횡성강서 마사지〗➴「횡성마사지 근육」✂횡성정왕역 안마방↙횡성콜걸◑횡성마사지 하다가⊙횡성수유 마사지⇊횡성다낭 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 이천안마 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    횡성출장샵0예약┱횡성봉천 안마방〖횡성섹시 마사지〗╔「횡성안마방 카드」セ횡성일본 마사지 품번↕횡성창원 봉곡동 안마방⇟횡성안마방 태국녀◇횡성유흥 마사지◑횡성군산 여관

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 포항출장샵 .

    하남정선 마사지
    충청남도안마방 청소년 진주출장샵 서산신림 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    횡성출장샵⊙예약금없는출장샵キ횡성봉천 안마방〖횡성역삼 마사지〗┪「횡성전립선 마사지 방법」↩횡성군산 모텔 추천✗횡성안마방 여자친구⇠횡성동남아 마사지♐횡성출장마사지 후기♐횡성안마방 fc2

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 부산출장안마 .

    횡성출장샵┍출장부르는법❉횡성봉천 안마방〖횡성광양 안마방〗♜「횡성부산 서면 출장」╇횡성안마방 20대☯횡성사당역 안마방π횡성서귀포 마사지ⓞ횡성하이퐁 마사지⇖횡성안마방 카드사용

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 카지노사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 순천피로회복 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    횡성출장샵☒24시출장샵╝횡성봉천 안마방〖횡성안마방 단속 확률〗♡「횡성길동 마사지」☭횡성셀프 마사지♀횡성모텔 다방エ횡성마송 여관▧횡성안마방 안마─횡성jav 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    횡성출장샵▲출장부르는법ホ횡성봉천 안마방〖횡성젖몸살 마사지〗▨「횡성마사지 관리사」☃횡성콜걸추천↸횡성갑상선 마사지↸횡성마사지 야동♫횡성안마방 추천╦횡성남양주 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 광주안마방 휴게 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 카지노사이트 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 바카라사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 김제구미 여관 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 바카라사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    횡성출장샵┪24시출장샵➺횡성봉천 안마방〖횡성행신 안마방〗➼「횡성성서 안마방」⇍횡성왕십리 안마방▲횡성중국식 마사지┯횡성남성전용➹횡성조건 만남 카톡▥횡성홍대 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 부산출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 창원출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    횡성출장샵♥24시출장샵┤횡성봉천 안마방〖횡성창원 안마방〗→「횡성낙성대 마사지」⇁횡성커플 마사지 후기❄횡성붕따우 마사지ⓞ횡성평택 여관↶횡성하이퐁 마사지♦횡성jav 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    옥천고시촌 안마방
    광주출장안마 상주전립선 마사지 영상 카지노사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    횡성출장샵↔24시출장샵✦횡성봉천 안마방〖횡성마사지 성추행〗♠「횡성운정 안마방」┯횡성판교 마사지⇁횡성안마방 내부┲횡성모텔 tumblr♩횡성마사지 도구╂횡성세븐 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.횡성출장샵횡성대전 유성 안마방☼횡성안마방 영어┙「횡성kcm 안마방」횡성간석오거리 안마방☢횡성콜걸출장마사지┛횡성안마방 비아그라♂횡성동대구 모텔↿서울출장안마예약금없는출장샵횡성두정동 안마방シ횡성토렌트 안마방⇂〔횡성생리통 완화 마사지〕횡성당진 안마방♐횡성안마방 도찰↠횡성대구 커플 동영상⇖횡성정준호 안마방↷횡성출장샵광명군자역 안마방횡성군산 여관┼횡성군자역 안마방♂〈횡성안마방 유출〉횡성별내 마사지ラ횡성마사지 ㅁㅎㅎ┹횡성중국 안마방┱횡성연산동 안마방►횡성종아리 마사지 기계♩횡성창원 마사지➴{횡성쿤타이 마사지}횡성안마방 위치✡횡성안마방 어디까지♪횡성마사지 품번ラ횡성안마방 분수☄횡성수내 마사지♔횡성안마방 수입➼(횡성카톡 출장)횡성안마방 무료야동➺횡성냥이 마사지┴횡성제목없음 안마방£횡성마사지 맛사지⇚횡성진주시 안마방♬횡성서혜부 마사지 란▪{횡성냉정 안마방}횡성pornhub 안마방★횡성섹스 마사지﹌횡성강남역 마사지ク횡성금정역 안마방✕예약금없는출장샵서울 세븐 안마방예약횡성홍방장 안마방♡횡성인천 안마방 후기☪〈횡성비염 마사지〉횡성호텔 출장❈횡성포천 마사지☶횡성중랑구 마사지セ횡성쿠알라룸푸르 마사지[횡성출장샵횡성출장샵대전출장샵횡성안마방 영상횡성안마방 오랄횡성중국 대딸횡성곤지암 마사지횡성출장샵횡성구미 여관♗횡성태국 전립선 마사지┢(횡성장한평 안마방)횡성수원 안마방➚횡성응암 마사지▧횡성안마방 얼마냐↶횡성필고⇉의정부오일 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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